Otolaryngology is more commonly known as ear, nose and throat medicine, because this is the treatment, diagnoses and surgery of the ear nose, throat, head and neck disorders. The name originated with the Greek words, roots, meaning ear, laryng meaning larynx or throat, and logy meaning study.

Physicians specializing in this type of medical treatment are Otolaryngologists and are required to complete at least five years of surgical residency training, which is split into one year of general surgical training and four years in head and neck surgery.  This treatment can include maxillofacial surgeries, termporal bone, treatment of sinusitis, cleft lip and palate, and other types of treatments and surgeries.